CHP · Cogeneration · Conservation · Efficiency · electric grid · Energy Savings Plan · Net Metering · renewable energy · Resilience

Implementing Combined Heat and Power Projects

CHP reduces the environmental impact of power generation by promoting the use of efficient, clean, and reliable approach to generating power and thermal energy from a single fuel source.

CHP can increase operational efficiency and decrease energy costs, while reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases, which contribute to global climate change.

Objective is to save time and money, reduce business risk and environmental impacts, and improve the power reliability of your facility in five steps:

o   Qualification Determine whether CHP is worth considering at your facility

o   Level 1 Feasibility Analysis Identify project goals and potential barriers. Quantify technical and economic opportunities while minimizing time and effort

o   Level 2 Feasibility Analysis Optimize CHP system design, including capacity, thermal application, and operation. Determine final CHP system pricing and return on investment

o   Procurement Build a CHP system according to specifications, on schedule and within budget

o   Operation & Maintenance Maintain a CHP system that provides expected energy savings and reduces emissions by running reliably and efficiently

projects designed to meet specific operational needs and integrate seamlessly into existing mechanical and electrical systems

Economic suitability for CHP is based on current and future fuel costs and utility rates; planned new construction or heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment replacement; and the need for power reliability at the site.

CHP project economics are greatly affected by utility policies at the local state and federal level

The Technical Potential for CHP is based on the coincident demand of power and thermal energy. Power can include both electricity and shaft power, which can be used for mechanical purposes. Thermal demand can include steam, hot water, chilled water, process heat, refrigeration, and dehumidification. A CHP system can be designed to convert waste heat into various forms of thermal energy to meet different facility needs, including heating hot water in the winter and chilling water in the summer.

Operations and Maintenance $0.005/kilowatt-hour (kWh) – $0.015/kWh for maintenance, depending on type of equipment and operations and maintenance (O&M) procurement approach; possible cost for energy consultant to negotiate fuel purchase, depending on system size and in-house capabilities.

Benefits CHPs achieve efficiencies of 60 to 80 percent, compared to average fossil-fueled power plant efficiencies of 33 percent in the United States. These translate to:

• Reduced total fossil fuel use.

• Lower operating costs.

• Reduced emissions of regulated air pollutants.

• Reduced emissions of greenhouse gases.

• Increased reliability and power quality.

• Reduced grid congestion and avoided distribution losses.

CHP and biomass/biogas funding opportunities

Financial incentives, such as grants, tax incentives, low-interest loans, favorable partial load rates (e.g., standby rates), and tradable allowances.

Regulatory treatment that removes unintended barriers to CHP and biomass project development, such as standard interconnection requirements, net metering, and output-based regulations. 

State and federal incentives applicable to CHP systems, such as direct financial incentives or favorable regulatory treatment.

Find out if your facility is a good candidate for CHP

Conservation · Efficiency · Historic District · Historic Towns · intercity transit · Resilience · Sustainable Communities · travel plan · water quality

Development Projects Impact Assessment

Traffic Safety and Congestion getting through the nearest signalized intersections in one green cycle during rush hour conditions. Standing at each proposed new intersection location, verify visibility of approaching vehicles at the minimum, safe sight-distance formula: posted speed limit + 10 mph x 11 feet/mph. Example: 30 mph + 10 = 40 x 11 = 440 feet sight – distance. Trips generated by the project on neighborhood streets are below 2,000 vehicles per day.

Safe Streets and School Overcrowding for residential areas, can the additional students resulting from the project be accommodated without exceeding the capacity of affected schools. Sidewalks are adequate to allow students to safely walk or bike to school along the streets receiving traffic from the project.

Trees and Forests complying with tree canopy or forest conservation laws.

clustered homes maximize forest preservation

Buffering and Screening of commercial and industrial projects from the view of adjacent residential homes. If the project obstructs natural views from existing homes, then the proposed landscaping must be sufficient to preserve views.

Property Values commercial or industrial structures to be at least 300 feet from residential homes. If the project is commercial-industrial, can trucks reach the site without travelling on residential streets.

Air Quality if the project is a gas station, it must be at least 500 feet from homes, hospitals, schools, senior centers and day care facilities. The homes must be 500 feet from a highway with traffic volumes of 50,000 or more vehicles per day.

Fire and Emergency Medical Services the project must be within a four to eight-minute response time for fire and emergency medical services. In suburban-urban areas with water pressure sufficient to meet fire suppression needs.

Recreation Areas for residential projects, a minimum of 10 acres of park or other recreation areas for every 1,000 residents is recommended. For suburban-urban residential projects, there should be a neighborhood park within a ¼ mile walking distance of the site.

Water Supply for projects served by wells, verify the likelihood that area wells fail or become contaminated. If the site is served by piped-public water, the project must not exceed the safe or sustainable yield.

Flooding all proposed structures must be outside the 100-year flood plain, with runoff managed to prevent an increase in floodwater elevations downstream of the site.

Reduce Transit Times and Travel Costs on Your Next Trip

Travel Plans     Intercity & Local Transport

Historical-Archaeological Resources if a designated historic-archaeological resource is present on or near the site, the local historic society must ascertain that it is adequately protected. For buildings 50 years or older slated for demolition, the local historic society should be consulted about the need for protection.

Water a buffer of native vegetation undisturbed within 100 feet of streams, wetlands or other aquatic resources. Rooftops, streets, parking lots and other impervious surfaces drain to bio-retention, infiltration or other highly effective storm water system. Project sewage is sent to a treatment plant and the pipes carrying the sewage do not overflow. The treatment plant has met pollution discharge limits for the last 3 years; If the project will be served by onsite sewage disposal, site soils should be rated for Septic Tank Absorption Fields in accordance with USDA Web Soil Survey.

Assess the Impact of Your Development Project

Build Operate Transfer · Business · Cogeneration · Conservation · destination management · Efficiency · Energy Savings Plan · entrepreneurs · Historic District · Historic Towns · renewable energy · Resilience · Sustainable Communities · water quality

Energy and Water Project Funding

Small and Medium-sized Commercial Buildings account for 95 percent of building stock and consume half the energy in a sector of the economy responsible for 20 percent of the total energy consumption. Owners of smaller buildings are often unaware of the amount of energy wasted and the opportunity for savings that building automation systems provide. This sector hasn’t BAS for the following reasons: the high cost of tailoring software and acquiring hardware components is beyond the reach of most small- and medium-sized properties; the owner is not always the tenant that pays the utility bill, hence limited incentive to invest in the building’s energy efficiency.

Building Leases spell out how energy costs are divided between tenants and owners. Often, these leases are not structured in a way that promotes energy savings. Tenants have no incentive to save energy in their leased premises because energy costs are based on tenant square footage. Building owners have no incentive to invest in energy efficiency because the operating expenses are passed onto tenants. 

Green Leases promote energy efficiency by creating lease structures which equitably align the costs and benefits of efficiency investments between building owners and tenants.

Energy Management Systems can be used to centrally control devices like HVAC units and lighting systems across multiple locations. EMS also provide metering, sub-metering and monitoring functions that allow facility managers to gather data and insight to make more informed decisions about energy activities across their sites.

Distributed Generation occurs on a property site when energy is sold to the building occupants; here, commercial PPAs enable businesses and governments to purchase electricity directly from the generator rather than from the utility. Power Purchase Agreements PPA is a legal contract between an electricity generator and a power purchaser.

Financing Energy Efficiency Projects face several financial impediments, including information. Financial institutions often lack a full understanding of energy efficiency technologies which are almost always investments with long repayment terms. Small towns and rural communities require specific and unique knowledge, expertise and funding sources.

A Power Purchase Agreement PPA is a legal contract between an electricity generator and a power purchaser. Contractual terms may last anywhere between 5 and 20 years, during which time the power purchaser buys energy, and sometimes also capacity and services, from the electricity generator. Such agreements play a key role in the financing of independently owned electricity generating assets. The seller is typically an independent power producer – IPP.

PPAs Facilitate the Financing of Distributed Generation Assets

Distributed Generation occurs on a property site with energy is sold to the building occupants; here, commercial PPAs enable businesses and governments to purchase electricity directly from the generator rather than from the utility. The parties involved include: The Seller is the entity that owns the project. In most cases, the seller is organized as a special purpose entity whose main purpose is to facilitate project financing, and The Buyer is typically a utility or building occupants under the distributed generation scenario.

Water Resources Strategies on Main Street and Historic Districts

Urban Flooding many small towns across the country lose drinking water because of aging pipes, in addition, asphalt and concrete prevent rainwater from soaking into the ground. The solution to inadequate storm water and drinking water management: green infrastructure like rain gardens and bios wales.

Aging Pipes and Outdated Systems Waste 14 percent of Daily Water Consumption

Water Losses from aging infrastructure and faulty metering lead to lost revenue for utilities and higher rates for water users. Also, increasing demand, maintenance and energy costs are responsible for a 90% increase in utility rates. This trend can be countered by best management practices BMP that include state-of-the-art audits, leak detection monitoring, targeted repairs and upgrades, pressure management, and better metering technologies. 

Integrated Water Systems in Small Towns and Rural Communities by 2030 the world will need to produce 50 percent more for food and energy and 30 percent more fresh water. Solar pumps are reliable technology which can compete with conventional pumping technologies such as diesel pumping. Large amounts of energy are used in the entire water cycle. Water Pumps play a major role in all water and waste-water processes.

Tell us about Your Energy and Water Plans

Conservation · Efficiency · Lakes · Rivers · Sustainable Communities · water quality · waterways

Water Supply Planning

Water Consumption comes from a lake, reservoir, river or a groundwater aquifer via wells. Individually, we consume 80 to 100 gallons per day and the typical household 400/day. A Community Growth Management Plan determines the quantity of water that can be safely withdrawn from all sources under drought conditions; the available supply must then be compared with current demand as well as that with anticipated growth. If demand comes too close to supply, then the plan must recommend actions to offset a shortage.

Excessive Withdrawal Prevention is established with safe and/or sustainable yields of an aquifer’s water balance analysis. First, you calculate the amount of precipitation replenishing the water source during drought periods. Precipitation supplies are then subtracted from freshwater flowing into wetlands, streams and waterways that keep these aquatic resources healthy. Thereafter, all uses are accounted for: irrigation, industrial processing, cooling, hydroelectric and other.  The balance is the amount of water that can be safely and sustainably withdrawn. 

Water Consumption Growth is Limited to the Remaining Amount

Climate Change may have a substantial effect on future water supplies; studies indicate that the combined effect of decline in precipitation, and increased temperatures, may cause a 35 percent reduction in the amount of water entering rivers by the year 2040. 

FAQs does your growth management plan include:

criteria for assessing water supply adequacy

current drought-period water supply and demand

how water supply and demand will change with anticipated growth

actions for resolving water supply deficiencies and the factual basis for the effectiveness of each action

how shortfalls will be resolved with anticipated growth.

A New Plan for Your Area if your current plan is about to expire or rates poorly based on the Quality of Life Growth Management system, we can assist you in carrying out the outlined steps and/or conduct a community workshop and assist you in formulating a planning strategy for your community.

Tell us about Your Water Supply Plan

Build Operate Transfer · CHP · Cogeneration · Conservation · Efficiency · electric grid · Energy Savings Plan · Net Metering · renewable energy · Resilience

Micro-CHP

Solar Cogeneration and Net Metering Systems

A cogeneration plant often referred to as a combined heat and power plant is tasked with producing electricity and thermal energy in the form of heat or steam, or useful mechanical work, such as shaft power, from the same fuel source.

Micro-CHP engine systems are currently based on several different technologies: Internal combustion engines, Stirling engines, Fuel cell, Microturbines, Steam engine/Steam motor using either water or organic chemicals such as refrigerants.

Micro combined heat and power or mCHP applies to single or multi-family homes or small office buildings in the range of up to 50 kW. Local generation has the potential for a higher efficiency than traditional grid-level generators since it lacks the 8-10% energy losses from transporting electricity over long distances as well as 10–15% energy losses from heat transfer in district heating networks due to the difference between the thermal energy carrier – hot water – and the colder external environment.

Most Systems use natural gas as the primary energy source and emit carbon dioxide. A micro-CHP system usually contains a small fuel cell or a heat engine as a prime mover used to rotate a generator which provides electric power, while simultaneously utilizing the waste heat from the prime mover for a building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. A micro-CHP generator delivers electricity as the by-product or may generate electricity with heat as the by-product. 

Micro-CHP systems have been facilitated by recent technological developments of small heat engines

Type 2008 2012 2015 2020
Electrical efficiency at rated power 34% 40% 42.5% 45%
CHP energy efficiency 80% 85% 87.5% 90%
Factory cost $750/kW $650/kW $550/kW $450/kW
Transient response (10%–90% rated power) 5 min 4 min 3 min 2 min
Start-up time from 20 °C ambient temperature 60 min 45 min 30 min 20 min
Degradation with cycling < 2%/1000 h 0.7%/1000 h 0.5%/1000 h 0.3%/1000 h
Operating lifetime 6,000 h 30,000 h 40,000 h 60,000 h
System availability 97% 97.5% 98% 99%

CPVT Concentrated photovoltaics and thermal also called CHAPS combined heat and power solar, is a cogeneration technology used in concentrated photovoltaics that produce electricity and heat in the same module. The heat may be employed in district and water heating, air conditioning, process heat or desalination.

Net metering micro-CHP systems achieve much of their savings by the value of electrical energy which is replaced by auto produced electricity. A generate-and-resell model supports this as home-generated power exceeding the in-home needs is sold back to the electrical utility. This system is efficient because the energy used is distributed and used instantaneously over the electric grid.

Tell us about Your Energy Savings Plan

Build Operate Transfer · Business · Commerce · Conservation · destination management · Efficiency · Geography · Historic Towns · intercity transit · microtransit · Mobility · Travel

Build Operate and Transfer Projects

Travel Mobility Services Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation

The Concept a program anchored in communities with a history as hub cities, hence a reliance on connections and collaborations within and among regions, resulting in a national trading platform with economies of scale utilizing historic trade routes and state of the art products and services to the benefit of community commuters, residents and visitors.

The Objective achieve economies of scale pricing in selected communities around the US in the areas of travel, destination management, transit, 5G, energy efficiency and water conservation.

Reduce Transit Times and Travel Cost on Your Next Trip

Travel Plans     Intercity & Local Transport

Ways and Means a build operate and transfer project, unique to each community but connecting participating towns via customer sharing, transit programs, energy management and similar measures.

Participants a team of product and services providers who provide know-how and resources to jump-start projects in collaboration with local partners.

The BOT is established for a set duration – 18 to 24 months, renewable – with transfer to local partners, inclusive of training for local individuals, existing businesses, local government and nonprofits, where applicable.

Client Targets: US and International Vacationers, Business Travelers and Commuters

Connecting air and rail metro hubs with micropolitan communities via

Intercity Multimodal and Local Micro Transit hub and spoke services to

Leverage travel client relationships and engage local product and service providers in:

travel related value-added services    transportation   

 energy efficiency    water conservation

Creating Virtual Hotels and improving Customer Service.

A Team Tasked with Developing Deploying Managing and Marketing Systems and Tools that Benefit Your Community

Commerce · Efficiency · hub and spoke transport · intercity transit · Last Mile · Logistics · mobility network · optic fiber · Performance

Telecom and Energy Networks First and Last Miles

The last mile or last kilometer is a term widely used in the telecommunication, energy and transportation industries to deliver services to retail customers; specifically, it refers to the portion of the network chain that physically reaches the end-user’s premises. The word mile is a metaphor because the last mile of a network to the user is conversely the first mile from the user’s premises to the outside world when the user is sending data or initiating a transport service.

The Speed Bottleneck in networks occurs in the last/first mile; bandwidth effectively limits the data that can be delivered to the customer because networks have relatively few high capacity trunk channels branching out to feed many final mile clients. The final mile links, being the most numerous and thus most expensive part of the system, as well as having to interface with a wide variety of user equipment, are the most difficult to upgrade to new technology. Phone trunk lines that carry calls between switching centers are made of optical-fiber but the last mile is a technology which has remained unchanged for over a century since the original laying of copper phone cables.

The term last mile has expanded outside the communications industries to include other distribution networks that deliver goods to customers, such as the pipes that deliver water and natural gas and the final legs of mail and package deliveries. The problem of sending any given amount of information across a channel can therefore be viewed in terms of sending Information-Carrying Energy ICE. For this reason, the concept of a pipe or conduit is relevant for examining existing systems.

conduits that carry small amounts of a resource a short distance to physically separated endpoints

Cost and Efficiency the high-capacity conduits in these systems tend to also have in common the ability to efficiently transfer a resource over a long distance. Only a small fraction of the resource being transferred is wasted or misdirected. The same cannot be said of lower-capacity conduits; this has to do with efficiency of scale. Conduits that are located closer to the end-user, do not have as many users supporting them; resources supporting these smaller conduits come from the local area. Resources for these conduits can be optimized to achieve the best solutions, however, lower operating efficiencies and greater installation expenses can cause these smaller conduits to be the most expensive and difficult part of a distribution system.

economies of scale increases of a conduit’s capacity are less expensive as the capacity increases

The economics of information transfer an effective last-mile conduit must:

Deliver signal power, must have adequate signal power capacity;

Experience low occurrence of conversion to unusable energy forms;

Support wide transmission bandwidth;

Deliver high signal-to-noise ratio, low unwanted-signal power;

Provide nomadic connectivity.

In addition, a good solution to the last-mile problem must provide each user high availability, reliability, low latency and high per-user capacity. A conduit which is shared among multiple end-users should provide a correspondingly higher capacity in order to properly support each individual user for information transfer in each direction.

Optical fiber offers high information capacity and is the medium of choice for scalability given the increasing bandwidth requirements of modern applications. Unlike copper-based and wireless last-mile mediums, it has built-in future capacity through upgrades of end-point optics and electronics without having to change the existing fiber infrastructure. 

optical fiber is the future of local and regional commerce