CHP · Cogeneration · Conservation · Efficiency · electric grid · Energy Savings Plan · Net Metering · renewable energy · Resilience

Implementing Combined Heat and Power Projects

CHP reduces the environmental impact of power generation by promoting the use of efficient, clean, and reliable approach to generating power and thermal energy from a single fuel source.

CHP can increase operational efficiency and decrease energy costs, while reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases, which contribute to global climate change.

Objective is to save time and money, reduce business risk and environmental impacts, and improve the power reliability of your facility in five steps:

o   Qualification Determine whether CHP is worth considering at your facility

o   Level 1 Feasibility Analysis Identify project goals and potential barriers. Quantify technical and economic opportunities while minimizing time and effort

o   Level 2 Feasibility Analysis Optimize CHP system design, including capacity, thermal application, and operation. Determine final CHP system pricing and return on investment

o   Procurement Build a CHP system according to specifications, on schedule and within budget

o   Operation & Maintenance Maintain a CHP system that provides expected energy savings and reduces emissions by running reliably and efficiently

projects designed to meet specific operational needs and integrate seamlessly into existing mechanical and electrical systems

Economic suitability for CHP is based on current and future fuel costs and utility rates; planned new construction or heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment replacement; and the need for power reliability at the site.

CHP project economics are greatly affected by utility policies at the local state and federal level

The Technical Potential for CHP is based on the coincident demand of power and thermal energy. Power can include both electricity and shaft power, which can be used for mechanical purposes. Thermal demand can include steam, hot water, chilled water, process heat, refrigeration, and dehumidification. A CHP system can be designed to convert waste heat into various forms of thermal energy to meet different facility needs, including heating hot water in the winter and chilling water in the summer.

Operations and Maintenance $0.005/kilowatt-hour (kWh) – $0.015/kWh for maintenance, depending on type of equipment and operations and maintenance (O&M) procurement approach; possible cost for energy consultant to negotiate fuel purchase, depending on system size and in-house capabilities.

Benefits CHPs achieve efficiencies of 60 to 80 percent, compared to average fossil-fueled power plant efficiencies of 33 percent in the United States. These translate to:

• Reduced total fossil fuel use.

• Lower operating costs.

• Reduced emissions of regulated air pollutants.

• Reduced emissions of greenhouse gases.

• Increased reliability and power quality.

• Reduced grid congestion and avoided distribution losses.

CHP and biomass/biogas funding opportunities

Financial incentives, such as grants, tax incentives, low-interest loans, favorable partial load rates (e.g., standby rates), and tradable allowances.

Regulatory treatment that removes unintended barriers to CHP and biomass project development, such as standard interconnection requirements, net metering, and output-based regulations. 

State and federal incentives applicable to CHP systems, such as direct financial incentives or favorable regulatory treatment.

Find out if your facility is a good candidate for CHP

Build Operate Transfer · CHP · Cogeneration · Conservation · Efficiency · electric grid · Energy Savings Plan · Net Metering · renewable energy · Resilience

Micro-CHP

Solar Cogeneration and Net Metering Systems

A cogeneration plant often referred to as a combined heat and power plant is tasked with producing electricity and thermal energy in the form of heat or steam, or useful mechanical work, such as shaft power, from the same fuel source.

Micro-CHP engine systems are currently based on several different technologies: Internal combustion engines, Stirling engines, Fuel cell, Microturbines, Steam engine/Steam motor using either water or organic chemicals such as refrigerants.

Micro combined heat and power or mCHP applies to single or multi-family homes or small office buildings in the range of up to 50 kW. Local generation has the potential for a higher efficiency than traditional grid-level generators since it lacks the 8-10% energy losses from transporting electricity over long distances as well as 10–15% energy losses from heat transfer in district heating networks due to the difference between the thermal energy carrier – hot water – and the colder external environment.

Most Systems use natural gas as the primary energy source and emit carbon dioxide. A micro-CHP system usually contains a small fuel cell or a heat engine as a prime mover used to rotate a generator which provides electric power, while simultaneously utilizing the waste heat from the prime mover for a building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. A micro-CHP generator delivers electricity as the by-product or may generate electricity with heat as the by-product. 

Micro-CHP systems have been facilitated by recent technological developments of small heat engines

Type 2008 2012 2015 2020
Electrical efficiency at rated power 34% 40% 42.5% 45%
CHP energy efficiency 80% 85% 87.5% 90%
Factory cost $750/kW $650/kW $550/kW $450/kW
Transient response (10%–90% rated power) 5 min 4 min 3 min 2 min
Start-up time from 20 °C ambient temperature 60 min 45 min 30 min 20 min
Degradation with cycling < 2%/1000 h 0.7%/1000 h 0.5%/1000 h 0.3%/1000 h
Operating lifetime 6,000 h 30,000 h 40,000 h 60,000 h
System availability 97% 97.5% 98% 99%

CPVT Concentrated photovoltaics and thermal also called CHAPS combined heat and power solar, is a cogeneration technology used in concentrated photovoltaics that produce electricity and heat in the same module. The heat may be employed in district and water heating, air conditioning, process heat or desalination.

Net metering micro-CHP systems achieve much of their savings by the value of electrical energy which is replaced by auto produced electricity. A generate-and-resell model supports this as home-generated power exceeding the in-home needs is sold back to the electrical utility. This system is efficient because the energy used is distributed and used instantaneously over the electric grid.

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canals · Cultural Heritage · destination management · electric grid · Historic Towns · Lakes · Maritime Heritage · Mobility · museums · private transport · public transit · waterways

Wabash Indiana

The Wabash and Erie Canal

The name Wabash derives from the Miami-Illinois phrase water over white stones; the Miami name reflected the clarity of the river whose bottom is limestone.

Wabash IndianaThe Wabash Post Office has been Operating since 1839

The first electrically lighted city in the world was inaugurated on March 31, 1880. The Wabash courthouse grounds were lighted with four 3,000-candle power lamps suspended from the top of the courthouse. Two telegraph wires ran from the lamps to the courthouse basement, where they were connected to a threshing machine to provide power.

Wabash is Home to Several Historic Districts

Wabash and Erie Canal mapThe Wabash and Erie Canal provided traders with access from the Great Lakes to the Ohio River; 460 miles long, it was the longest canal ever built in North America. The waterway was a combination of four canals: the Miami and Erie, the original Wabash and Erie from Junction to Terre Haute, Indiana, the Cross-Cut Canal from Terre Haute to Point Commerce, and the Central Canal from Worthington to Evansville.

The Interpretive Center is an open-air village located on the banks of the canal in Delphi, Indiana. The interpretive center includes a model canal with a miniature reservoir, aqueduct, lock, and gristmill. The model canal boat General Grant shows the type of boats that carried freight on the canal during its final years of full-scale operation from the 1860s to 1874.

The Wabash & Erie Canal Association is dedicated to Indiana’s Canal Heritage

Wabash and Erie Canal Canal Park DelphiTravel along the canal was accomplished by canal freight and passenger packets. The passenger packet consisted of a series of rooms and a main saloon where meals were taken. This room was converted into a men’s dorm for sleeping. The women’s saloon was towards the back of the boat.

The Packets were Pulled by Horses and Oxen

The Route was from Toledo on Lake Erie to Fort Wayne. From here, it follows the historic Indian portage to the Wabash River, then heads downstream to Delphi and, using several other river ways, it reaches the Ohio River.

Wabash and Erie Canal Delphi

 

 

 

Connect for Travel to Wabash

 

 

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CHP · destination management · electric grid · renewable energy

Ethical and Technical Solutions for Climate Change

Our problems are man-made–therefore, they can be solved by man

President John F Kennedy

The Middle Atlantic Region of the United States is among the most affluent in the world, with a high percentage of highly educated, informed and environment conscious citizenry. This is also a trend setting region because it is:

the seat of government where the rules and regulations are crafted, and

a highly diverse community with people from all over the world that live, work, study and visit here; hence the perfect conduit to transfer ideas and know-how to other communities.

Silver Lake DEEthical not Technical as the documentary Surviving Progress points out, solutions to climate change and mankind’s condition on planet earth can be found less in technological advancement and more in ethical and political considerations; people tend to do and want what others do and want.

There are of course technical and practical issues, but they can only be effective if:

  1. preceded by an educational effort to inform the public on the benefit of a specific course of action, as well as the consequences of inaction, which forces
  2. political office holders to make decisions, provide leadership, and
  3. direct rule making bodies to establish new and appropriate regulations and sanctions

The Solution lies in consuming less without impacting quality and standard of life. This is achieved by first tackling ethical and political considerations, including but are not limited to:

  • recalculating government and family budgets; economics is not a science therefore it is not subject to unchanging facts of life like the laws of gravity
  • budgets must take into-account what we take from nature through a revenue neutral carbon tax with consumption levies and income tax rebates

Dover DelawareAt this point, technological as well as politically and economically feasible solutions can be adopted.

If your community is dependent on service industries, such as tourism, it can adapt a series of measures that address water resources and quality as well as energy savings. Management innovations such Energy Services Performance Contracts – ESPCs – and Technical solutions, such as Combined Heat and Power – CHP – are proven, state of the art systems that:

reduce greenhouse emissions by 40 percent

consume essentially zero water resources in generating electricity

are low-cost to electricity generation

reduce the risk of electric grid disruptions, and

increase predictability with electricity prices

Most of all, going back to the politics of the climate change issue, they utilize:

  1. fossil and/or renewable energy, lessening the stalemate between these two options
  2. highly-skilled local labor and technology, hence creating new wealth in a community
  3. are adaptable and scalable to local conditions, and
  4. meet the stated goal of consuming less without impacting quality and standard of life.

NASA-2015 Record Warm Global Year Since1880ESPCs and CHP are utilized in a variety of applications:

industrial providing electricity and steam to energy-intensive industries such as chemicals, paper, refining, food processing, and metals manufacturing

commercial and institutional providing electricity, steam, and hot water to hospitals, schools, university campuses, farms, hotels, nursing homes, office buildings apartment complexes and other residential housing.

In developed and developing communities there is a disconnect on most issues between the elites – the wealthy, opinion and decision makers – and the rest, especially regarding economic development, trade and the environment.

The connection between haves and have nots will occur when wealth creation, employment and entrepreneurship are linked to the climate change issue; till then, climate related issues will remain an issue of interest to a very select minority of earth’s population. The link is more likely to occur when technologically, economically and politically evolved regions like the Middle Atlantic States set the example and show the way to combat climate change; other communities will then follow in their footsteps to the benefit of all.

Ethical and Technical Solutions for Climate Change

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ambiente · America · Build Operate Transfer · Business · CHP · Cogeneration · Conservation · Cultural Heritage · cultural itineraries · destination management · Efficiency · efficienza energetica · electric grid · Energy Savings Plan · Friends and Family Travel · Historic District · Historic Towns · Italy · Stati Uniti · sviluppo del territorio · vacanze · viaggi · viaggio di lavoro

Gestiome Tutela e Conservazione dei Centri e Distretti Storici

Conservazione Storica Sviluppo Economico Pianificazione del Territorio Leasing Verde Risorse Idriche

Un Distretto Storico e’ composto da un gruppo di palazzi, proprieta’ e siti designati da enti nazionali, statali e/o locali per una importanza storica o architettonica. I Patrimoni storici sono spesso protetti legalmente dalla speculazione edilizia. Queste Aree Protette fanno parte di centri urbani e rurali ma anche di distretti commerciali, amministrativi e artisitici.

Barns Brinton HouseNegli Stati Uniti vi sono attualmente 85mila proprieta’ storiche, per lo piu’ inserite in circa 13.500 distretti storici, nonche’ 9.500 strutture attualmente non in uso ma elegibili

La Pianificazione dell’uso di suoli e strutture in ambito Green Leases e la qualità delle risorse idriche. Il tuo piano comunitario per la conservazione di edifici locali e siti di rilevanza archeologica, culturale e storica dovrebbe:
Elencare tutte le risorse archeologiche, culturali e storiche,
Individuare 
quelle potenzialmente minacciate dallo sviluppo economico nel territorio,
Raccomandare 
azioni per la salvaguardia dell’ambiente, e
Spiegare 
perché le azioni selezionate sono consoni con la conservazione a lungo termine.

John L Callahan HousePer Saperne di Piu’

Visita la Nostra Rete di  Borghi e Distretti Storici

Il Leasing Verde per Proprietà e Comunità. Green Leases promuove l’efficienza energetica creando strutture di locazione che abbinano equamente costi e benefici degli investimenti tra la proprieta’ e gli inquilini.

La Gestione dello sviluppo economico e la pianificazione dell’uso del territorio. I piccoli centri urbani e le province hanno piani che indicano come dovrebbe crescere un’area, i centri commerciali, nuove scuole, progetti immobiliari e lo sviluppo commerciale, residenziale, istituzionale o industriale. Il tuo piano locale mostra come la crescita anticipata possa influire sulla qualità della vita per i residenti attuali e futuri così come i visitatori del territorio.

Un Piano per gestire le risorse idriche dovrebbe elencare tutte le acque e la loro condizione espressi come risorse idirche:
Eccellenti adatte a tutti gli usi umani e in grado di sostenere la pesca sensibile e altre risorse acquatiche,  Buone per sostenere un elevato numero di pesci e di selvaggina ma non organismi sensibili,
Sufficienti per supportare poca pesca e selvaggina ma non idonei per il nuoto ed altri sport acquatici,
Di scarsa qualità che sopporta solo organismi in grado di tollerare l’inquinamento.

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America · Build Operate Transfer · Business · CHP · Cogeneration · Conservation · Efficiency · electric grid · Energy Savings Plan · Historic District · Historic Towns · Logistics · Net Metering · renewable energy · Resilience

Saving Energy on Main Street

Energy Service Companies Savings Performance Contracts ESA Payments and ESCO Guarantees

Energy Services Agreements – ESAs – are pay-for-performance, off-balance sheet financing solutions that allows customers to implement energy efficiency projects with zero upfront capital expenditure. As in the case of power purchase agreements – PPAs – equipment is installed, owned and operated by the vendor who sells the saved power to the customer.

Red Wing MNESAs are the Energy Efficiency Equivalent of a Power Purchase Agreement

Energy Service Companies – ESCos – provide designs and implementation solutions for energy savings projects, retrofitting, energy conservation, outsourcing, power generation and supply.

Energy Savings Performance Contracts – ESPCs – accelerate investment in cost effective energy conservation measures without up-front capital costs. ESPCs are partnerships between a property owner/operator and an ESCo which conducts a comprehensive energy audit to identify improvements to save energy, designs and constructs the project as well as arranges the necessary financing.

An ESCO Guarantees the Improvements that Generate Energy Cost Savings

Energy Savings result from lighting upgrades, building automation system and controls. A Flexible Contractual Tool for retailers looking to stabilize utility costs as well as achieve longer term benefits by buying out the contract and take ownership of installed equipment.

main streetEnergy Management for Small and Medium-sized Commercial Buildings

ESA Payments are operating expenses designed to be off-balance sheet financing solutions with regular payments similar-to a utility bill.

Outputs Quality and Achievements of Specific Measurable Performance Standards 

aberdeen buildingBenefits resulting from the application of ESAs include energy efficiency, water conservation, emissions reduction and streamlined contract funding for energy management projects, through access to private-sector expertise, built-in incentives to provide high-quality equipment, and project commissioning infrastructure improvements. Project management ensures building efficiency and new equipment without upfront capital costs as well as energy and related operation and maintenance cost saving guarantees.

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Business · CHP · Cogeneration · Conservation · Efficiency · electric grid · Energy Savings Plan · Net Metering · water quality

Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation in the Hospitality Industry

digital meters smart grids plug and process integrated water systems

Digital Metering & Smart Grids in Small Towns and Rural Communities. Smart Meters enable two-way communication between the meter and the central system; unlike home energy monitors, smart meters can gather data for remote reporting.

Gas meterWith the inception of electricity deregulation and market-driven pricing, utilities have been looking for a means to match consumption with generation. Smart meters provide a way of measuring site-specific information, allowing utility companies to introduce different prices for consumption based on the time of day and the season.

Plug and Process Loads in Hospitality Properties Hotels Apartments Farmhouses and Villa Rentals Plug and Process Loads PPLs consume about one third of primary energy in buildings. PPL efficiency has become pertinent in achieving aggressive energy targets.

Water ResourcesIntegrated Water Systems in Small Towns and Rural Communities. Smart Water Technology remote monitoring and control of water pipes and plants help reduce water distribution losses, improve smart energy use for water management and reduce maintenance costs.

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