Build Operate Transfer · CHP · Cogeneration · Conservation · Efficiency · electric grid · Energy Savings Plan · Net Metering · renewable energy · Resilience

Micro-CHP

Solar Cogeneration and Net Metering Systems

A cogeneration plant often referred to as a combined heat and power plant is tasked with producing electricity and thermal energy in the form of heat or steam, or useful mechanical work, such as shaft power, from the same fuel source.

Micro-CHP engine systems are currently based on several different technologies: Internal combustion engines, Stirling engines, Fuel cell, Microturbines, Steam engine/Steam motor using either water or organic chemicals such as refrigerants.

Micro combined heat and power or mCHP applies to single or multi-family homes or small office buildings in the range of up to 50 kW. Local generation has the potential for a higher efficiency than traditional grid-level generators since it lacks the 8-10% energy losses from transporting electricity over long distances as well as 10–15% energy losses from heat transfer in district heating networks due to the difference between the thermal energy carrier – hot water – and the colder external environment.

Most Systems use natural gas as the primary energy source and emit carbon dioxide. A micro-CHP system usually contains a small fuel cell or a heat engine as a prime mover used to rotate a generator which provides electric power, while simultaneously utilizing the waste heat from the prime mover for a building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. A micro-CHP generator delivers electricity as the by-product or may generate electricity with heat as the by-product. 

Micro-CHP systems have been facilitated by recent technological developments of small heat engines

Type 2008 2012 2015 2020
Electrical efficiency at rated power 34% 40% 42.5% 45%
CHP energy efficiency 80% 85% 87.5% 90%
Factory cost $750/kW $650/kW $550/kW $450/kW
Transient response (10%–90% rated power) 5 min 4 min 3 min 2 min
Start-up time from 20 °C ambient temperature 60 min 45 min 30 min 20 min
Degradation with cycling < 2%/1000 h 0.7%/1000 h 0.5%/1000 h 0.3%/1000 h
Operating lifetime 6,000 h 30,000 h 40,000 h 60,000 h
System availability 97% 97.5% 98% 99%

CPVT Concentrated photovoltaics and thermal also called CHAPS combined heat and power solar, is a cogeneration technology used in concentrated photovoltaics that produce electricity and heat in the same module. The heat may be employed in district and water heating, air conditioning, process heat or desalination.

Net metering micro-CHP systems achieve much of their savings by the value of electrical energy which is replaced by auto produced electricity. A generate-and-resell model supports this as home-generated power exceeding the in-home needs is sold back to the electrical utility. This system is efficient because the energy used is distributed and used instantaneously over the electric grid.

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Atlantic Coast · Commerce · Cultural Heritage · destination management · Geography · Historic Towns · intercity transit · Mobility · public transit · Resilience · Sustainable Communities · travel plan · water quality

Community Planning

The Montgomery County, Maryland Experience

As Montgomery County continues to attract an increasingly diverse, technologically savvy, well-educated population, the Planning Department focuses its skills and talents to bring high-quality design in both form and function to all areas, from central business districts to rural villages and improve quality of life by conserving and enhancing the natural and built environment for current and future generations.

Community Planning great communities are created by developingmaster plans, reviewing applications for developmentand analyzing information to help public officials plan the future. Multi-disciplinary geographic teams with regulatory as well as community planning functions lead to better integration and more balanced decision-making. Staff also provide recommendations, information, analysis and services to the Planning Board, the County Council, the County Executive, other government agencies and the general public.

The Environment sustainability and a reduced carbon footprint contribute to healthier communities by

o   assisting property owners to improve or develop their properties

o   analyzing natural resources for community planning

o   reviewing development applications, and

o   participating in efforts to promote environmental sustainability for residents and visitors.

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Sustainable communities are created by addressing resource protection, climate change, air quality, water quality and availability, human health and well-being.

Historic Preservation is supported by providing identification, designation, and regulation of historic sites in Montgomery County.  Staff maintains an archive and library of documentation on historic resources and provides preservation outreach and guidance on best-practices to the public.

Transportation Planning entails detailed analyses of transportation issues and improvements needed to support expected growth during master plan preparation as well as planned improvements. A biennial Mobility Assessment report plays an integral role in developing recommendations for growth policies matching transport services with new development.

Urban Designers establish guidelines, blend architecture, landscape architecture, and environmental stewardship, resulting in:

o   Street Character improving the character of the street system, promoting walking, providing easy access to transit, creating inviting connections to services

o   Open Spaces establishing open space systems designed to serve people of all ages and needs, providing a variety of urban spaces – plazas, urban parks and town commons – connected by a system of greenways and sidewalks

o   Building Form and Character fostering the design of buildings that shape public streets and open spaces, density, building heights, setbacks from the curb, and parking locations

o   Landmarks and Gateways preserving and highlighting the elements that make a community unique and increasing access to historic resources.

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Atlantic Coast · Conservation · Cultural Heritage · cultural itineraries · Historic Towns · intercity transit · museums · Resilience · Rivers · Sustainable Communities · Travel Plan Fees · water quality

Exploring Brandywine Creek and Valley

Brandywine Creek is a tributary of the Christina River in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware. The Lower Brandywine is 20.4 miles long and is a designated Pennsylvania Scenic River with several tributary streams.

Development and Conservancy Issues in the 1960s, Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania in the historic Brandywine Valley, faced a possible massive industrial development that would impact a largely rural community.  Also, development plans in floodplain areas threatened to devastate water supplies for numerous communities in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware.

Residents bought endangered land and founded the Brandywine Conservancy in 1967.  The first conservation easements, protecting more than five and one-half miles along the Brandywine, were granted in 1969. 

These Experiences have placed the Brandywine Valley communities in the forefront of responsible land use, open space preservation and water protection with a focus on integrating conservation with economic development through land stewardship and local government assistance programs working with individuals, state, county and municipal governments and private organizations to permanently protect and conserve natural, cultural and scenic resources.

The Conservancy opened a museum in 1971 in the renovated Hoffman’s Mill, a former gristmill built in 1864, part of the Conservancy’s first preservation efforts.  It contains an unparalleled collection of American art with emphasis on the art of the Brandywine region, illustration, still life and landscape painting, and the work of the Wyeth family.

River Museums Microbrews and Shopping in Delaware and Southeastern PA

Professional Enrichment Tours address suburban sprawl, declining water quality, diminishing water supplies, vanishing agricultural land, loss of historic character, wildlife habitat degradation, and threatened biological resources. Learn to:

·         Protect and conserve land and water, natural, cultural and scenic resources;

·         Create and strengthen local government efforts that support resource conservation;

·         Improve site planning and design to support resource conservation;

·         Plan and conserve of natural and cultural resources;

·         Enhance awareness and knowledge of conservation approaches.

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On the way to the Brandywine Valley, it is worth visiting three cultural venues in Wilmington:

Rockwood Mansion & Park, an English country estate featuring unique gardens, a Rural Gothic mansion with conservatory, and a Victorian house museum with 19thand 20th century furnishings.

The Delaware Center for the Contemporary Arts, located in the Wilmington Riverfront District, is a non-collecting contemporary art museum dedicated to the advancement of contemporary art. The DCCA houses seven galleries with over 30 exhibits annually, featuring the work of regional, national, and international artists.

The Delaware Art Museum founded in 1912, it offers vibrant family programs, studio art classes, a diverse collection of American art and illustration and an outdoor sculpture garden.

Explore Brandywine Valley, Delaware and Southeastern PA

Conservation · Efficiency · Geography · Performance · Resilience · Sustainable Communities · water quality · waterways

Assessing the Impact of a Development Project

points of reference for assessing the impact of a proposed development project

Water a buffer of native vegetation undisturbed within 100 feet of streams, wetlands or other aquatic resources. Rooftops, streets, parking lots and other impervious surfaces drain to bio-retention, infiltration or other highly effective storm water system. Project sewage is sent to a treatment plant and the pipes carrying the sewage do not overflow. The treatment plant has met pollution discharge limits for the last 3 years; If the project will be served by onsite sewage disposal, site soils should be rated for Septic Tank Absorption Fields in accordance with USDA Web Soil Survey.

coastal resiliencyTraffic Safety and Congestion getting through the nearest signalized intersections in one green cycle during rush hour conditions. Standing at each proposed new intersection location, verify visibility of approaching vehicles at the minimum, safe sight-distance formula: posted speed limit + 10 mph x 11 feet/mph. Example: 30 mph + 10 = 40 x 11 = 440 feet sight – distance. Trips generated by the project on neighborhood streets are below 2,000 vehicles per day.

Safe Streets and School Overcrowding for residential areas, can the additional students resulting from the project be accommodated without exceeding the capacity of affected schools. Sidewalks are adequate to allow students to safely walk or bike to school along the streets receiving traffic from the project.

Trees and Forests if the project must comply with tree canopy or forest conservation laws, are there requirements met onsite.

clustered homes maximize forest preservation

Broadway Main StreetBuffering and Screening of commercial and industrial projects from the view of adjacent residential homes. If the project obstructs natural views from existing homes, then the proposed landscaping must be sufficient to preserve views.

Property Values commercial or industrial structures be at least 300 feet from residential homes. If the project is commercial-industrial, can trucks reach the site without travelling on residential streets.

Air Quality if the project is a gas station, it must be at least 500 feet from homes, hospitals, schools, senior centers and day care facilities. The homes must be 500 feet from a highway with traffic volumes of 50,000 or more vehicles per day.

Fire and Emergency Medical Services the project must be within a four to eight-minute response time for fire and emergency medical services. In suburban-urban areas, water pressure must be sufficient to meet fire suppression needs.

Richmond Historic Canal WalkRecreation Areas for residential projects, a minimum of 10 acres of park or other recreation areas for every 1,000 residents is recommended. For suburban-urban residential projects, there should be a neighborhood park within a ¼ mile walking distance of the site.

Water Supply for projects served by wells, verify the likelihood that area wells fail or become contaminated. If the site is served by piped-public water, the project must not exceed the safe or sustainable yield.

Flooding all proposed structures must be outside the 100-year flood plain, with runoff managed to prevent an increase in floodwater elevations downstream of the site.

Historical-Archaeological Resources if a designated historic-archaeological resource is present on or near the site, the local historic society must ascertain that it is adequately protected. For buildings 50 years or older slated for demolition, the local historic society should be consulted about the need for protection.

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America · Build Operate Transfer · Business · CHP · Cogeneration · Conservation · Efficiency · electric grid · Energy Savings Plan · Historic District · Historic Towns · Logistics · Net Metering · renewable energy · Resilience

Saving Energy on Main Street

Energy Service Companies Savings Performance Contracts ESA Payments and ESCO Guarantees

Energy Services Agreements – ESAs – are pay-for-performance, off-balance sheet financing solutions that allows customers to implement energy efficiency projects with zero upfront capital expenditure. As in the case of power purchase agreements – PPAs – equipment is installed, owned and operated by the vendor who sells the saved power to the customer.

Red Wing MNESAs are the Energy Efficiency Equivalent of a Power Purchase Agreement

Energy Service Companies – ESCos – provide designs and implementation solutions for energy savings projects, retrofitting, energy conservation, outsourcing, power generation and supply.

Energy Savings Performance Contracts – ESPCs – accelerate investment in cost effective energy conservation measures without up-front capital costs. ESPCs are partnerships between a property owner/operator and an ESCo which conducts a comprehensive energy audit to identify improvements to save energy, designs and constructs the project as well as arranges the necessary financing.

An ESCO Guarantees the Improvements that Generate Energy Cost Savings

Energy Savings result from lighting upgrades, building automation system and controls. A Flexible Contractual Tool for retailers looking to stabilize utility costs as well as achieve longer term benefits by buying out the contract and take ownership of installed equipment.

main streetEnergy Management for Small and Medium-sized Commercial Buildings

ESA Payments are operating expenses designed to be off-balance sheet financing solutions with regular payments similar-to a utility bill.

Outputs Quality and Achievements of Specific Measurable Performance Standards 

aberdeen buildingBenefits resulting from the application of ESAs include energy efficiency, water conservation, emissions reduction and streamlined contract funding for energy management projects, through access to private-sector expertise, built-in incentives to provide high-quality equipment, and project commissioning infrastructure improvements. Project management ensures building efficiency and new equipment without upfront capital costs as well as energy and related operation and maintenance cost saving guarantees.

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America · Business · Conservation · Cultural Heritage · cultural itineraries · destination management · Efficiency · food and wine itineraries · Historic Towns · Logistics · museums · Resilience · Sustainable Communities · Travel

Tourism in the Knowledge Economy

The Rediscovery of Small Town Main Streets and Historic Districts with Sustainable Socio-Economic Policies

Castel Gandolfo Liberty SquareKnowledge Tourism brings together local histories, customs, values and traditions with expertise in a variety of disciplines to learn, experience and expand knowledge of the territory with a holistic program that addresses simultaneously:

Logistics such as Transit Oriented Development – TOD –  and Location Efficient Communities. Transit availability is important for business and economic development as well as a health issue, as numerous studies link reduced obesity with public transport, and the development of walking and biking trails, implemented in part via e-Services and the application of appropriate communications technologies that put underserved communities and customers within reach of public and private transport services at an affordable cost.

Energy Efficiency and Water Quality/Conservation synergies between energy and water are key as costs and consumption of the latter are highly dependent on the efficiency of the former; also, main street storefronts, offices, museums and other venues can regain visitors from malls and other commercial structures only if they implement energy savings programs.

Phila Skyline-Schuylkill RiverGeography and Historic Trade Routes, take into consideration rivers, lakes, coastlines, highways, wagon trails and rail routes to ensure sustainability and resilience, even where the rivers are no longer navigable, or a source of water for nearby communities, and rail heads have been dismissed. Each region has anchor locations with a history as hubs.

Anchor Locations are the points of reference for other local areas in their respective regions as well as cross-regional collaborations whereby a local government, nonprofit or business that has a specific expertise in a topic beneficial to local food and/or heath related issue, is invited to participate and transfer its know-how to ensure:

Purchasing Power, the Achilles’ heel of both small communities and small business, achievable via local and regional collaborations and transfers of know-how and a

A Planning Process that addresses Land Use, Housing, Utilities, Community Facilities, Transportation, Water and Natural Resources, Historic Preservation and Economic Development.

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New Small Business and Employment Opportunities

Food FarmersCultural Heritage and Local Museums give meaning and purpose to the objects on display in museums and art galleries as they disclose the historical and archaeological heritage of a community, leverage conservation and the rediscovery of cultural heritage through the arts, history, archaeology, literature and architecture, preserve biodiversity and the cultures associated with rural, coastal and river communities.

Local Food Wineries and Breweries there are several fascinating examples throughout America of a resurgence in farming that caters to an ever-increasing demand for local, quality and sustainable food, wine and ale consumption in urban and rural areas.

Preserving Cultural Heritage of American Communities via Place Making

map-zoomPublic Transport Initiatives In recent years, efficient and affordable public transit – in the form of bus rapid transit – BRT, rail services and trolley cars – for urban, suburban and intercity service have been debated, studied and in some instances implemented. Major cities such as Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, DC and Minneapolis/St Paul that have established commuter and regional services can bring their planners and managers into collaborations with small town planners and businesses to construct efficient, safe and affordable commuter, transit and travel related services.

Water Resources and the Environment visit and study the efforts of communities that are in the forefront of water resources management and other environmentally sustainable practices in coastal and river waterfront development in small towns and large cities as well as agricultural communities. Local officials and nonprofit stewards of the environment, among others, explain their policies, programs and best management practices in wastewater and watershed management, land conservancy issues, LEED certifications, recycling, rainwater collection and energy efficient systems.

Massachusetts Avenue Lawrence KansasIndustry and Commerce Itineraries from Agriculture and Industry to Services and Sustainability

Communities transitioning from traditional industrial and commercial activities to technologically innovative ones; in some instances, they are also able to re-establish their traditional economic activities with a successful application of the so-called knowledge economy and, in the process, becoming once again competitive in the world marketplace.

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