CHP · Cogeneration · Conservation · Efficiency · electric grid · Energy Savings Plan · Net Metering · renewable energy · Resilience

Implementing Combined Heat and Power Projects

CHP reduces the environmental impact of power generation by promoting the use of efficient, clean, and reliable approach to generating power and thermal energy from a single fuel source.

CHP can increase operational efficiency and decrease energy costs, while reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases, which contribute to global climate change.

Objective is to save time and money, reduce business risk and environmental impacts, and improve the power reliability of your facility in five steps:

o   Qualification Determine whether CHP is worth considering at your facility

o   Level 1 Feasibility Analysis Identify project goals and potential barriers. Quantify technical and economic opportunities while minimizing time and effort

o   Level 2 Feasibility Analysis Optimize CHP system design, including capacity, thermal application, and operation. Determine final CHP system pricing and return on investment

o   Procurement Build a CHP system according to specifications, on schedule and within budget

o   Operation & Maintenance Maintain a CHP system that provides expected energy savings and reduces emissions by running reliably and efficiently

projects designed to meet specific operational needs and integrate seamlessly into existing mechanical and electrical systems

Economic suitability for CHP is based on current and future fuel costs and utility rates; planned new construction or heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment replacement; and the need for power reliability at the site.

CHP project economics are greatly affected by utility policies at the local state and federal level

The Technical Potential for CHP is based on the coincident demand of power and thermal energy. Power can include both electricity and shaft power, which can be used for mechanical purposes. Thermal demand can include steam, hot water, chilled water, process heat, refrigeration, and dehumidification. A CHP system can be designed to convert waste heat into various forms of thermal energy to meet different facility needs, including heating hot water in the winter and chilling water in the summer.

Operations and Maintenance $0.005/kilowatt-hour (kWh) – $0.015/kWh for maintenance, depending on type of equipment and operations and maintenance (O&M) procurement approach; possible cost for energy consultant to negotiate fuel purchase, depending on system size and in-house capabilities.

Benefits CHPs achieve efficiencies of 60 to 80 percent, compared to average fossil-fueled power plant efficiencies of 33 percent in the United States. These translate to:

• Reduced total fossil fuel use.

• Lower operating costs.

• Reduced emissions of regulated air pollutants.

• Reduced emissions of greenhouse gases.

• Increased reliability and power quality.

• Reduced grid congestion and avoided distribution losses.

CHP and biomass/biogas funding opportunities

Financial incentives, such as grants, tax incentives, low-interest loans, favorable partial load rates (e.g., standby rates), and tradable allowances.

Regulatory treatment that removes unintended barriers to CHP and biomass project development, such as standard interconnection requirements, net metering, and output-based regulations. 

State and federal incentives applicable to CHP systems, such as direct financial incentives or favorable regulatory treatment.

Find out if your facility is a good candidate for CHP

Conservation · Efficiency · Historic District · Historic Towns · intercity transit · Resilience · Sustainable Communities · travel plan · water quality

Development Projects Impact Assessment

Traffic Safety and Congestion getting through the nearest signalized intersections in one green cycle during rush hour conditions. Standing at each proposed new intersection location, verify visibility of approaching vehicles at the minimum, safe sight-distance formula: posted speed limit + 10 mph x 11 feet/mph. Example: 30 mph + 10 = 40 x 11 = 440 feet sight – distance. Trips generated by the project on neighborhood streets are below 2,000 vehicles per day.

Safe Streets and School Overcrowding for residential areas, can the additional students resulting from the project be accommodated without exceeding the capacity of affected schools. Sidewalks are adequate to allow students to safely walk or bike to school along the streets receiving traffic from the project.

Trees and Forests complying with tree canopy or forest conservation laws.

clustered homes maximize forest preservation

Buffering and Screening of commercial and industrial projects from the view of adjacent residential homes. If the project obstructs natural views from existing homes, then the proposed landscaping must be sufficient to preserve views.

Property Values commercial or industrial structures to be at least 300 feet from residential homes. If the project is commercial-industrial, can trucks reach the site without travelling on residential streets.

Air Quality if the project is a gas station, it must be at least 500 feet from homes, hospitals, schools, senior centers and day care facilities. The homes must be 500 feet from a highway with traffic volumes of 50,000 or more vehicles per day.

Fire and Emergency Medical Services the project must be within a four to eight-minute response time for fire and emergency medical services. In suburban-urban areas with water pressure sufficient to meet fire suppression needs.

Recreation Areas for residential projects, a minimum of 10 acres of park or other recreation areas for every 1,000 residents is recommended. For suburban-urban residential projects, there should be a neighborhood park within a ¼ mile walking distance of the site.

Water Supply for projects served by wells, verify the likelihood that area wells fail or become contaminated. If the site is served by piped-public water, the project must not exceed the safe or sustainable yield.

Flooding all proposed structures must be outside the 100-year flood plain, with runoff managed to prevent an increase in floodwater elevations downstream of the site.

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Historical-Archaeological Resources if a designated historic-archaeological resource is present on or near the site, the local historic society must ascertain that it is adequately protected. For buildings 50 years or older slated for demolition, the local historic society should be consulted about the need for protection.

Water a buffer of native vegetation undisturbed within 100 feet of streams, wetlands or other aquatic resources. Rooftops, streets, parking lots and other impervious surfaces drain to bio-retention, infiltration or other highly effective storm water system. Project sewage is sent to a treatment plant and the pipes carrying the sewage do not overflow. The treatment plant has met pollution discharge limits for the last 3 years; If the project will be served by onsite sewage disposal, site soils should be rated for Septic Tank Absorption Fields in accordance with USDA Web Soil Survey.

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accountability · Build Operate Transfer · Business · Circular Economy · Commerce · destination management · Energy Savings Plan · entrepreneurs · Historic District · Historic Towns · intercity transit · Logistics · Mobility · Partnerships · pay-per-use · Resilience · responsibility · shared economy · Tradition · travel plan

Collaborations and Partnerships in the Pay-per-Use Economy

Consumers, Manufacturers and Businesses in the Servitization Economy

Consumers increasingly prefer usership to ownership by utilizing pay-per-use and other on-demand services, as scalable and resilient value-driven outcomes such as pay-per-mile become available.

The Traditional make, use and dispose economy is supplanted by a circular one in which resources have a longer useful life, with product and materials recovery at the end of service life. End to end providers will be replaced by multiple product and service offerors with unique expertise in the provision of customer-centric rather than asset-centric services.

Small Businesses, especially those with clients located in rural and smaller urban communities, can increase their capabilities with environmentally viable offerings by entering into collaborations and partnerships in a multi-sector ecosystem as new companies enter the marketplace to target these opportunities via data democratization and new organizational models.

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Communities that rely on connections and collaborations within and among regions will have access to technologies to transition from a sale to a service culture that features pay-per-use and pay-by-outcome models such as pay-per-mile and power-by-the-hour, creating locally owned enterprises and achieving economies of scale pricing in areas ranging from travel service and destination management, to local and intercity mobility programs connecting large cities with micropolitan areas, and innovative energy savings, water conservation and building automation systems solutions for buildings typically found on main street and in historic districts. Technology tasks include data sources integration, micro payments, flexible billing and cost-effective self-service customer and partner interfaces.

Linking Manufacturing and Services

Circular and Shared Economies create new value as pay per use models and outcome payments change the points of reference of projects and transactions as manufacturers repair and upgrade their products with modular designs; asset management and optimum maintenance become major capabilities. Equipment re-use, remanufacturing and redeployment as well as asset harvesting allow manufacturers to offer life cycle management services.

a collaborative system that delivers seamless customer experiences

Build Operate Transfer · Conservation · Cultural Heritage · cultural itineraries · destination management · Friends and Family Travel · Historic District · Historic Towns · intercity transit · Resilience · Sustainable Communities · Tradition · Travel · travel plan

The Italian Borgo Historic District Concept

economic development virtual hotel towns and albergo diffuso travel accommodations

An Economic Development model designed to offer quality stays that do not impinge on the local lifestyle while promoting year-round resilient growth that favors restructuring, preservation and local resources.

Virtual Hotel Towns address the demand for sustainable, quality tourism in urban and rural areas by focusing on the interaction between visitors and locals as well as developing and promoting a community’s historic preservation efforts, traditions, values and architecture.

US Main Streets and Historic Districts Itineraries

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Albergo Diffuso is an innovative concept designed to revive small historic Italian communities by converting historic buildings into a virtual hotel village. Points of reference include:

Main Street Properties are managed by owners who also provide hospitality services

Travel Accommodations are derived from converted buildings in historic districts

A Central Reception provides Travel Related Services, including food and communications services.

Communities with Guest and Host Interactions that highlight Local Lifestyles

Local Businesses capable of managing incoming travel services benefit from a centralized marketing and sales program. Resources generated from inbound travel transactions are made available to Museums, Theaters and others on Main Street and in Historic Districts.

Local Projects integrate architecture with digital media and engage visitors through interaction with local citizens. Water resources and energy efficiency projects are also community attractors as domestic and international business and government visitors will come to study, learn and acquire knowledge and expertise in these fields.

Build Operate Transfer · Business · Cogeneration · Conservation · destination management · Efficiency · Energy Savings Plan · entrepreneurs · Historic District · Historic Towns · renewable energy · Resilience · Sustainable Communities · water quality

Energy and Water Project Funding

Small and Medium-sized Commercial Buildings account for 95 percent of building stock and consume half the energy in a sector of the economy responsible for 20 percent of the total energy consumption. Owners of smaller buildings are often unaware of the amount of energy wasted and the opportunity for savings that building automation systems provide. This sector hasn’t BAS for the following reasons: the high cost of tailoring software and acquiring hardware components is beyond the reach of most small- and medium-sized properties; the owner is not always the tenant that pays the utility bill, hence limited incentive to invest in the building’s energy efficiency.

Building Leases spell out how energy costs are divided between tenants and owners. Often, these leases are not structured in a way that promotes energy savings. Tenants have no incentive to save energy in their leased premises because energy costs are based on tenant square footage. Building owners have no incentive to invest in energy efficiency because the operating expenses are passed onto tenants. 

Green Leases promote energy efficiency by creating lease structures which equitably align the costs and benefits of efficiency investments between building owners and tenants.

Energy Management Systems can be used to centrally control devices like HVAC units and lighting systems across multiple locations. EMS also provide metering, sub-metering and monitoring functions that allow facility managers to gather data and insight to make more informed decisions about energy activities across their sites.

Distributed Generation occurs on a property site when energy is sold to the building occupants; here, commercial PPAs enable businesses and governments to purchase electricity directly from the generator rather than from the utility. Power Purchase Agreements PPA is a legal contract between an electricity generator and a power purchaser.

Financing Energy Efficiency Projects face several financial impediments, including information. Financial institutions often lack a full understanding of energy efficiency technologies which are almost always investments with long repayment terms. Small towns and rural communities require specific and unique knowledge, expertise and funding sources.

A Power Purchase Agreement PPA is a legal contract between an electricity generator and a power purchaser. Contractual terms may last anywhere between 5 and 20 years, during which time the power purchaser buys energy, and sometimes also capacity and services, from the electricity generator. Such agreements play a key role in the financing of independently owned electricity generating assets. The seller is typically an independent power producer – IPP.

PPAs Facilitate the Financing of Distributed Generation Assets

Distributed Generation occurs on a property site with energy is sold to the building occupants; here, commercial PPAs enable businesses and governments to purchase electricity directly from the generator rather than from the utility. The parties involved include: The Seller is the entity that owns the project. In most cases, the seller is organized as a special purpose entity whose main purpose is to facilitate project financing, and The Buyer is typically a utility or building occupants under the distributed generation scenario.

Water Resources Strategies on Main Street and Historic Districts

Urban Flooding many small towns across the country lose drinking water because of aging pipes, in addition, asphalt and concrete prevent rainwater from soaking into the ground. The solution to inadequate storm water and drinking water management: green infrastructure like rain gardens and bios wales.

Aging Pipes and Outdated Systems Waste 14 percent of Daily Water Consumption

Water Losses from aging infrastructure and faulty metering lead to lost revenue for utilities and higher rates for water users. Also, increasing demand, maintenance and energy costs are responsible for a 90% increase in utility rates. This trend can be countered by best management practices BMP that include state-of-the-art audits, leak detection monitoring, targeted repairs and upgrades, pressure management, and better metering technologies. 

Integrated Water Systems in Small Towns and Rural Communities by 2030 the world will need to produce 50 percent more for food and energy and 30 percent more fresh water. Solar pumps are reliable technology which can compete with conventional pumping technologies such as diesel pumping. Large amounts of energy are used in the entire water cycle. Water Pumps play a major role in all water and waste-water processes.

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Build Operate Transfer · CHP · Cogeneration · Conservation · Efficiency · electric grid · Energy Savings Plan · Net Metering · renewable energy · Resilience

Micro-CHP

Solar Cogeneration and Net Metering Systems

A cogeneration plant often referred to as a combined heat and power plant is tasked with producing electricity and thermal energy in the form of heat or steam, or useful mechanical work, such as shaft power, from the same fuel source.

Micro-CHP engine systems are currently based on several different technologies: Internal combustion engines, Stirling engines, Fuel cell, Microturbines, Steam engine/Steam motor using either water or organic chemicals such as refrigerants.

Micro combined heat and power or mCHP applies to single or multi-family homes or small office buildings in the range of up to 50 kW. Local generation has the potential for a higher efficiency than traditional grid-level generators since it lacks the 8-10% energy losses from transporting electricity over long distances as well as 10–15% energy losses from heat transfer in district heating networks due to the difference between the thermal energy carrier – hot water – and the colder external environment.

Most Systems use natural gas as the primary energy source and emit carbon dioxide. A micro-CHP system usually contains a small fuel cell or a heat engine as a prime mover used to rotate a generator which provides electric power, while simultaneously utilizing the waste heat from the prime mover for a building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. A micro-CHP generator delivers electricity as the by-product or may generate electricity with heat as the by-product. 

Micro-CHP systems have been facilitated by recent technological developments of small heat engines

Type 2008 2012 2015 2020
Electrical efficiency at rated power 34% 40% 42.5% 45%
CHP energy efficiency 80% 85% 87.5% 90%
Factory cost $750/kW $650/kW $550/kW $450/kW
Transient response (10%–90% rated power) 5 min 4 min 3 min 2 min
Start-up time from 20 °C ambient temperature 60 min 45 min 30 min 20 min
Degradation with cycling < 2%/1000 h 0.7%/1000 h 0.5%/1000 h 0.3%/1000 h
Operating lifetime 6,000 h 30,000 h 40,000 h 60,000 h
System availability 97% 97.5% 98% 99%

CPVT Concentrated photovoltaics and thermal also called CHAPS combined heat and power solar, is a cogeneration technology used in concentrated photovoltaics that produce electricity and heat in the same module. The heat may be employed in district and water heating, air conditioning, process heat or desalination.

Net metering micro-CHP systems achieve much of their savings by the value of electrical energy which is replaced by auto produced electricity. A generate-and-resell model supports this as home-generated power exceeding the in-home needs is sold back to the electrical utility. This system is efficient because the energy used is distributed and used instantaneously over the electric grid.

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Atlantic Coast · Commerce · Cultural Heritage · destination management · Geography · Historic Towns · intercity transit · Mobility · public transit · Resilience · Sustainable Communities · travel plan · water quality

Community Planning

The Montgomery County, Maryland Experience

As Montgomery County continues to attract an increasingly diverse, technologically savvy, well-educated population, the Planning Department focuses its skills and talents to bring high-quality design in both form and function to all areas, from central business districts to rural villages and improve quality of life by conserving and enhancing the natural and built environment for current and future generations.

Community Planning great communities are created by developingmaster plans, reviewing applications for developmentand analyzing information to help public officials plan the future. Multi-disciplinary geographic teams with regulatory as well as community planning functions lead to better integration and more balanced decision-making. Staff also provide recommendations, information, analysis and services to the Planning Board, the County Council, the County Executive, other government agencies and the general public.

The Environment sustainability and a reduced carbon footprint contribute to healthier communities by

o   assisting property owners to improve or develop their properties

o   analyzing natural resources for community planning

o   reviewing development applications, and

o   participating in efforts to promote environmental sustainability for residents and visitors.

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Sustainable communities are created by addressing resource protection, climate change, air quality, water quality and availability, human health and well-being.

Historic Preservation is supported by providing identification, designation, and regulation of historic sites in Montgomery County.  Staff maintains an archive and library of documentation on historic resources and provides preservation outreach and guidance on best-practices to the public.

Transportation Planning entails detailed analyses of transportation issues and improvements needed to support expected growth during master plan preparation as well as planned improvements. A biennial Mobility Assessment report plays an integral role in developing recommendations for growth policies matching transport services with new development.

Urban Designers establish guidelines, blend architecture, landscape architecture, and environmental stewardship, resulting in:

o   Street Character improving the character of the street system, promoting walking, providing easy access to transit, creating inviting connections to services

o   Open Spaces establishing open space systems designed to serve people of all ages and needs, providing a variety of urban spaces – plazas, urban parks and town commons – connected by a system of greenways and sidewalks

o   Building Form and Character fostering the design of buildings that shape public streets and open spaces, density, building heights, setbacks from the curb, and parking locations

o   Landmarks and Gateways preserving and highlighting the elements that make a community unique and increasing access to historic resources.

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