Build Operate Transfer · CHP · Cogeneration · Conservation · Efficiency · electric grid · Energy Savings Plan · Net Metering · renewable energy · Resilience


Solar Cogeneration and Net Metering Systems

A cogeneration plant often referred to as a combined heat and power plant is tasked with producing electricity and thermal energy in the form of heat or steam, or useful mechanical work, such as shaft power, from the same fuel source.

Micro-CHP engine systems are currently based on several different technologies: Internal combustion engines, Stirling engines, Fuel cell, Microturbines, Steam engine/Steam motor using either water or organic chemicals such as refrigerants.

Micro combined heat and power or mCHP applies to single or multi-family homes or small office buildings in the range of up to 50 kW. Local generation has the potential for a higher efficiency than traditional grid-level generators since it lacks the 8-10% energy losses from transporting electricity over long distances as well as 10–15% energy losses from heat transfer in district heating networks due to the difference between the thermal energy carrier – hot water – and the colder external environment.

Most Systems use natural gas as the primary energy source and emit carbon dioxide. A micro-CHP system usually contains a small fuel cell or a heat engine as a prime mover used to rotate a generator which provides electric power, while simultaneously utilizing the waste heat from the prime mover for a building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. A micro-CHP generator delivers electricity as the by-product or may generate electricity with heat as the by-product. 

Micro-CHP systems have been facilitated by recent technological developments of small heat engines

Type 2008 2012 2015 2020
Electrical efficiency at rated power 34% 40% 42.5% 45%
CHP energy efficiency 80% 85% 87.5% 90%
Factory cost $750/kW $650/kW $550/kW $450/kW
Transient response (10%–90% rated power) 5 min 4 min 3 min 2 min
Start-up time from 20 °C ambient temperature 60 min 45 min 30 min 20 min
Degradation with cycling < 2%/1000 h 0.7%/1000 h 0.5%/1000 h 0.3%/1000 h
Operating lifetime 6,000 h 30,000 h 40,000 h 60,000 h
System availability 97% 97.5% 98% 99%

CPVT Concentrated photovoltaics and thermal also called CHAPS combined heat and power solar, is a cogeneration technology used in concentrated photovoltaics that produce electricity and heat in the same module. The heat may be employed in district and water heating, air conditioning, process heat or desalination.

Net metering micro-CHP systems achieve much of their savings by the value of electrical energy which is replaced by auto produced electricity. A generate-and-resell model supports this as home-generated power exceeding the in-home needs is sold back to the electrical utility. This system is efficient because the energy used is distributed and used instantaneously over the electric grid.

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CHP · destination management · electric grid · renewable energy

Ethical and Technical Solutions for Climate Change

Our problems are man-made–therefore, they can be solved by man

President John F Kennedy

The Middle Atlantic Region of the United States is among the most affluent in the world, with a high percentage of highly educated, informed and environment conscious citizenry. This is also a trend setting region because it is:

the seat of government where the rules and regulations are crafted, and

a highly diverse community with people from all over the world that live, work, study and visit here; hence the perfect conduit to transfer ideas and know-how to other communities.

Silver Lake DEEthical not Technical as the documentary Surviving Progress points out, solutions to climate change and mankind’s condition on planet earth can be found less in technological advancement and more in ethical and political considerations; people tend to do and want what others do and want.

There are of course technical and practical issues, but they can only be effective if:

  1. preceded by an educational effort to inform the public on the benefit of a specific course of action, as well as the consequences of inaction, which forces
  2. political office holders to make decisions, provide leadership, and
  3. direct rule making bodies to establish new and appropriate regulations and sanctions

The Solution lies in consuming less without impacting quality and standard of life. This is achieved by first tackling ethical and political considerations, including but are not limited to:

  • recalculating government and family budgets; economics is not a science therefore it is not subject to unchanging facts of life like the laws of gravity
  • budgets must take into-account what we take from nature through a revenue neutral carbon tax with consumption levies and income tax rebates

Dover DelawareAt this point, technological as well as politically and economically feasible solutions can be adopted.

If your community is dependent on service industries, such as tourism, it can adapt a series of measures that address water resources and quality as well as energy savings. Management innovations such Energy Services Performance Contracts – ESPCs – and Technical solutions, such as Combined Heat and Power – CHP – are proven, state of the art systems that:

reduce greenhouse emissions by 40 percent

consume essentially zero water resources in generating electricity

are low-cost to electricity generation

reduce the risk of electric grid disruptions, and

increase predictability with electricity prices

Most of all, going back to the politics of the climate change issue, they utilize:

  1. fossil and/or renewable energy, lessening the stalemate between these two options
  2. highly-skilled local labor and technology, hence creating new wealth in a community
  3. are adaptable and scalable to local conditions, and
  4. meet the stated goal of consuming less without impacting quality and standard of life.

NASA-2015 Record Warm Global Year Since1880ESPCs and CHP are utilized in a variety of applications:

industrial providing electricity and steam to energy-intensive industries such as chemicals, paper, refining, food processing, and metals manufacturing

commercial and institutional providing electricity, steam, and hot water to hospitals, schools, university campuses, farms, hotels, nursing homes, office buildings apartment complexes and other residential housing.

In developed and developing communities there is a disconnect on most issues between the elites – the wealthy, opinion and decision makers – and the rest, especially regarding economic development, trade and the environment.

The connection between haves and have nots will occur when wealth creation, employment and entrepreneurship are linked to the climate change issue; till then, climate related issues will remain an issue of interest to a very select minority of earth’s population. The link is more likely to occur when technologically, economically and politically evolved regions like the Middle Atlantic States set the example and show the way to combat climate change; other communities will then follow in their footsteps to the benefit of all.

Ethical and Technical Solutions for Climate Change

Arezza Bot


Business · Conservation · destination management · Logistics

Digital Metering and Smart Grids in Small Towns and Rural Communities

Smart Grids Enable and Presume Active Consumer Participation

Smart Meters enable two-way communication between the meter and the central system; unlike home energy monitors, smart meters can gather data for remote reporting. With the inception of electricity deregulation and market-driven pricing, utilities have been looking for a means to match consumption with generation. Smart meters provide a way of measuring site-specific information, allowing utility companies to introduce different prices for consumption based on the time of day and the season.

Supply and Demand Integration

Data Management a critical element for smart meter systems is information technology at the utility that integrates networks with utility applications such as billing and customer service.

Historic Development of the Electric Grid the first alternating current power grid system was installed in 1886 as a centralized unidirectional system of electric power transmission and distribution. During the 20th century, local grids were interconnected for economy and reliability; power stations were strategically located close to fossil fuel sources, railroad, highways or ports. The 21st century is characterized by smart grid deployments, electronic communication technology, the application of alternative renewable energy sources and a lesser emphasis on large, centralized power stations.