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Congestion Pricing in Transport

a pricing strategy that regulates demand without increasing the supply

Congestion pricing entails surcharging users in excess demand situations for public transport, electricity, data and communications and road pricing to reduce traffic congestion. The policy objective is to leverage cost to make users sensitive when consuming during peak demand and pay for additional congestion, encouraging demand redistribution.

Implementation have reduced congestion in urban environments; however, critics point out that the system is not equitable even as many economists believe in the effectiveness of road pricing in some form. Four types are in use:

a cordon around downtown areas;

area wide congestion pricing;

city center toll ring, and

congestion pricing, where access to a location is priced.

Economic rationale at zero cost, demand exceeds supply, causing shortages corrected with equilibrium prices instead of increasing supply; this entails price increases when and where congestion occurs.

congestion pricing is one demand side efficiency strategy

A quantity supplied is less than the quantity demanded at what is essentially a price of zero. If a service is provided free of charge, people tend to demand more and waste it instead of paying the price that reflected its cost. Congestion pricing charges help allocate resources to their most valuable uses.

Road congestion pricing is found almost exclusively in urban areas and city centers whereas cordon area pricing is a fee paid by users to enter a restricted area. Its effectiveness has improved with technological advances in toll collection.

Cities that have implemented congestion pricing schemes show traffic volume reductions from 10% to 30% as well as reduced air pollution. In some locations, net earnings are invested to promote mobility management, reduce air pollution, initiate pedestrian and cycling strategies as well as upgrade public transportation.

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Philadelphia History Traditions and Sustainability

Your visit to the US Mid-Atlantic Region begins where America began, with a two-night three day stay.

Where History is Still Being Made among the many sights to take in when visiting the first capital of the United States: The Liberty Bell Center which houses the American Revolution’s defining symbol, the site of the meetings of Congress and the Constitutional Convention at the City Tavern in the Old City as well as Carpenters Hall. In Declaration House, visitors can see where Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence and Independence Hall where it was eventually signed.

laurel hill mansionPlaces to Visit a culturally rich and diverse city, Philadelphia is home to museums covering everything from natural sciences to African American history, science, archaeology and anthropology. Children will enjoy a day at the “Please Touch” Museum and the “Once upon a Nation” tour. Explore Christ Church Burial Ground; dating from 1695, the cemetery is the final resting place of Benjamin Franklin. For a sightseeing tour with a difference, take a cruise on the Delaware River. The city is also home to several wonderful gardens and arboretums. Also, the Battleship New Jersey and Valley Forge National Historic Park, site of the battle of 1777/78.

The Arts in 1805 an art collector, believing Philadelphia the best place for the encouragement of artistic taste, offered the city numerous paintings, sculptures, engravings and other art work. To accept the gift the city formed the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, the oldest art school and museum in the United States. The Philadelphia Museum of Art was founded in 1876 to maintain the art exhibits from the Centennial Exposition. It holds over 225,000 pieces of artwork including work by van Gogh, Picasso, and Marcel Duchamp. Nearby is the Rodin Museum, founded in 1929, with the largest collection of Rodin works outside of France.

phila warterfrontPhiladelphia has more Public Art than any other American City

The inclusion of decorative art in city structures goes back to the 19th century. In 1872, the Fairmount Park Art Association became the first private association in the United States dedicated to integrating public art and urban planning. With more murals than any other U.S. city, the Mural Arts Program has funded over 2,300 murals created by professional, staff and volunteer artists.

Culture Philadelphia’s history goes back to 1682 and the city’s founding by William Penn. Originally inhabited by the Lenape, Philadelphia was envisioned as a place where people could live without fear of persecution because of their religion; hence, many came to find refuge here. As Philadelphia grew into a major political and economic center, many religious and ethnic groups have contributed to the arts, music, television, architecture and food.
Fairs & Events the Mummers Parade’s first modern version was held in 1901 on New Year’s Day. Since 1993 every summer around the 4th of July, the multi-day Welcome America event celebrates Philadelphia as the nation’s birthplace. Three major annual shows in Philadelphia are the Flower Show, the Philadelphia International Auto Show and the Philadelphia Antiques Show. Festivals include the Folk Festival and Unity Day an event celebrating unity between people and families. Pride Fest events promote gay and lesbian rights. In September, the 16-day Philadelphia Live Arts Festival and Philly Fringe feature experimental art, performances and exhibits.

old original levis hot dogsFood the city’s culinary tradition was shaped by several ethnic groups. Cheese stake and soft pretzels are well known icons of the city. The 1970s saw a restaurant renaissance that is continuing into the 21st century. Other Philadelphia food traditions include:

The hoagie a sandwich made of meat and cheese with lettuce, tomatoes, and onions

Pepper Pot, a soup of tripe, meat and vegetables dating from the Revolutionary War era

Snapper Soup a thick brown turtle soup served with sherry.

Markets towards the end of the 19th century the large number of Italian immigrants in South Philadelphia led to the creation of the Italian Market on 9th Street with numerous types of food vendors along with other shops. The Reading Terminal Market is popular with visitors.

Music the city is home to a vibrant and well-documented musical heritage, stretching back to colonial times. Innovations in classical, opera, R&B, jazz and soul have earned Philadelphia national and international renown. A diverse population has also given it a reputation for styles ranging from dancehall to Irish traditional music, as well as classical and folk music. The city has played an equally prominent role in developing popular music. In the early years of rock and roll, several South Philadelphia-born popular vocalists made Philadelphia and popular music virtually synonymous. This led to the airing of the popular rock and roll dance show American Bandstand, from Philadelphia in front of a national audience.

Performing-Arts the city’s most senior venue is the famed Academy of Music. Established in 1857, it is the longest continuously operating opera house in the United States and is home to many internationally recognized performance ensembles. The Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, home of the internationally renowned Philadelphia Orchestra, opened in 2001. In addition, the Tower Theatre just outside of Philadelphia serves as a destination for many top touring acts.

Philadelphia SkylineSustainability In the city of Philadelphia, the waterfront is now a 6-mile walking and biking destination. Trail features include streetscape improvements along the entire waterfront trail, a bi-directional bikeway, pedestrian walkway and rain gardens that collect the first inch of storm water, relieving the city sewer system during major weather events, as well as benches, bike racks, decorative street pavers and innovative solar trail lighting. Center City offers a thriving culture and entertainment scene as well as contemporary arts museum with training programs and study tours for students, aspiring artists and family traveling.

US Mid-Atlantic Travel  an eight-day program for Families Schools and Groups

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City Breaks along the US Gulf and South Atlantic Coast

New Orleans Mobile Savannah Charleston Asheville and Charlotte

streetcarThe original settlement of New Orleans and the oldest neighborhood in the city is Vieux Carre, better known as the French Quarter. Established by the French in 1718, the location continues to be a valuable site for trade to its strategic position along the Mississippi River. The district is a National Historic Landmark and is bordered by popular streets, such as Canal, Decatur and Rampart Streets and Esplanade Avenue. The French Quarter boasts cultural contributions from the French, Spanish, Italians, Africans, Irish and others as demonstrated by the development of New Orleans as a global port.

Downtown MobileMobile Alabama is located at the head of Mobile Bay and the Central Gulf Coast. Mobile was founded by the French in 1702. During its first 100 years, Mobile was a colony of France, Britain and Spain; it became a part of the United States of America in 1813.

Gingerbread House in Savannah

Savannah was founded in 1733 on the Savannah River, it became the colonial capital and later the first state capital of Georgia. Its port was of strategic importance during both the American Revolution and the Civil War.

Pink house charleston

Charleston was founded in 1670, Charleston is defined by its cobblestone streets, horse-drawn carriages and pastel pre-Civil-War-era houses, particularly in the bustling French Quarter and Battery areas. The Battery promenade and Waterfront Park both overlook Charleston Harbor, while Fort Sumter, a Federal stronghold where the first shots of the Civil War rang out, lies across the water.

Charlotte is named in honor of King George III of Britain’s consort. It is a city with 199 neighborhoods and many nicknames, including: the famed Hornet’s Nest derived from the American RevolutionThe QC, Crown Town, Home of NASCAR, Gem of the South, CLT, Bank Town, Char-Town and City of Trees.

Asheville Beer TourAsheville has a fascinating past; experience a walking itinerary that commemorates the city’s most significant cultural, educational, social and architecture stories; a museum without walls. Urban Farm and Mountain Trails Gourmet Cuisine Public Art Music Heritage and a Bohemian Culture.

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Historical Tourism and Victorian Architecture in Guthrie Oklahoma

Location Guthrie lies along one of the primary corridors into Texas and Mexico and is a four-hour drive from the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area. The city is in the center of the state, about 32 miles – 51 km – north of Oklahoma City, in the Sandstone Hills region of Oklahoma, known for hills of 250 to 400 feet – 120 m – and oak forests.

Downtown guthrie oklahomaGuthrie was established in 1887 on the Southern Kansas Railway; after the April 1889 land run it was designated as the territorial capital when some fifty thousand potential settlers gathered at the edges of the Unassigned Plots in hopes of staking a claim to a plot.  In 1907 it became the first state capital of Oklahoma. Within months, Guthrie was developed as a modern brick and stone Queen of the Prairie with municipal water, electricity, mass transit and underground garages for horses and carriages.

The Land Run on April 22, 1889, tens of thousands of settlers thundered over the prairie on horses, in wagons, and on foot with the goal of owning their own land. Over 10,000 claims were staked that day in the land next to Cottonwood Creek. These “sooners” exploded onto the landscape, forging businesses and a progressive lifestyle. Within hours, wooden structures replaced tents and within months a modern brick and stone city emerged.

Gray Brothers BldgHistorical Tourism has become a significant industry for the town which includes 2,169 late 19th and early 20th century buildings, 1,400 acres (6 km2) and 400 city blocks. In 1999, the center district of Guthrie was designated a National Historic Landmark in recognition of the city’s importance to state history, as well as its rich Victorian architecture which provides a backdrop for Wild West and territorial-style entertainment, carriage tours, replica trolley cars, specialty shops, and art galleries.

Liberty Lake is Located South of the City

Museums include the Oklahoma Territorial Museum, and the Guthrie Scottish Rite Masonic Temple. The city hosts the Oklahoma International Bluegrass Festival, which draws 15,000 visitors annually.

The National Finals Steer Roping Rodeo is held in Guthrie

The Pollard Theater is Oklahoma’s oldest year-round professional theater company with an emphasis on creative story-telling to illuminate the shared human experience, producing six or more plays and musicals annually, enlisting artists across the United States.

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